Greece: (Early Hellenism)
c. 3940 - c. 4050 AM [Chart]
c. 280 - c. 170 BC [Chart]
After the period of time in which the Diadochoi fought (successors of Alexander the Great - i.e. his military generals) arose the era of Hellenism.
There were three major Hellenistic powers: the Ptolemaic Dynasty (in Egypt); the Seleucid Kingdom (in modern day Iraq/Iran); and the Antigonid Kingdom (in Macedonia). Out of the three, the Ptolemaic and Seleucid kingdoms were the strongest. These two kingdoms waged a series of wars against each other over the territory then known as Syria (which included the Jews in Palestine) and these wars came to be known as the Syrian Wars.